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Cinema

Cinema

INTRODUCTION

Cinema is one of the few mediums which have were able to successfully depict the real reality of society on the whole and our lives in particular. As like other fine art forms, it depicts the multiple realties that one is usually confronted with. It explores one of the discarded yet eternal truths which every specific experiences and that’s isolation. Each individual longs for social ties despite owned by organized societies; it is what every one of us is ultimately reduced to.

A Short filmis a technical explanation formerly coined in theIndian film industryand found in the UNITED STATES film industry in the early period ofcinema. The explanation is now used practically interchangeably withshort subject.

Although the North American definition generally identifies movies between 20 and 40 minutes, the definition identifies much shorter movies inEurope,Latin AmericaandAustralasia. InNew Zealand, for instance, the description can be used to spell it out any film which has duration longer than about a minute and shorter than a quarter-hour. The UNITED STATES definition also tends to focus much more on personality whereas the European and Australasian varieties tend to depend a lot more on visual drama and plot twists. In this manner, the UNITED STATES form can be thought as a derivation of the characteristic film form, usually acting as a program for aspirant Hollywood directors. Elsewhere, short films have a tendency to are showcases for cinematographers and commercial directors. (Short Film)

A brief film manages to notify the same tale as a full length feature film, however in a shorter passage of time. It is seen as a the director’s reflection of the existing social, political and economical conditions. A short film narrative is definitely one which may easily be created by persons from all walks of existence, it has universal applicability. It enables directors functioning on a tiny spending plan to tell their reports to the universe. The skill in creating a short film is based on communicating the communication of the film to the target audience in a very limited time frame. The transitions in a brief film are of significant importance. What I get intriguing is how anybody imbibes from their existing interpersonal conditions and produce work which is effectively communicable to many individuals.

Another reason to dwell into this topic of research is that lots of youngsters and amateurs start by making short films and use it as a path to grow. AsDaniel Wiernicki claims, “Short films tend to be popular as first methods into the film industry among youthful filmmakers. Simply because they will be cheaper and much easier to make, and also their length makes shorts much more likely to be watched by economical backers and others who prefer some demonstration of a filmmaker’s ability. A lot of things can be achieved by creating a short film so are a great possibility to get recognized and get into the industry.” (Wiernicki)

Through this dissertation, I aim to explore the world of short films in the context of movies which have gained the CannesShort Film Palme d’Or(French:Palme d’Or du courtroom métrage), which may be the highest prize given to ashort film at theCannes Film Festival. These short films are a representation of distinct cultures, ideologies, people, religious beliefs, economic backdrop, and political thoughts and record from around the world that come together using one system and showcase their art.

“The cinema isn’t a skill which films lifestyle: the cinema is certainly something between art work and lifestyle. Unlike painting and literature, the cinema both offers to life and will take from it, and I make an effort to render this concept in my movies. Literature and painting both are present as art from the very start off; the cinema doesn’t.”

– Jean- Luc Godard

LITERATURE REVIEW

Throughout our history, individuals have looked for diverse kinds of expressing themselves. These expressions had been in the kind of poetry, literature, songs, takes on, dancing, etc. movies are among the latest forms of expression that is adopted by the persons around the world to portray their views on the surroundings, any function, or minute that captivates them and they want to show it to the globe. The beauty of the films currently is that you could detract from truth and present something beyond the human being imagination at the same time one can present the harsh realities of existence that some don’t know about. Films as a method of communications can be utilised to spread kinds message or view across the world.

History of Cinema(History of Film)

The birth of the movies happened in 1878, when Eadweard Muybridge recorded a horse running in fast action using a group of 24 stereoscopic video cameras. With the advancement of technology emerged of the ‘Silent era’. Till the 1920s films were silent, though sometimes these were accompanied by musicians, sound files, or even commentary sometimes.

1940s to 60s- War and Post Battle Cinema

The wartime found immense change in the cinema as even more focus was given to propaganda and patriotic films. Films like Snow Light and the Seven Dwarfs and Citizen Cane were bits of this period.

The cold battle era brought movies filled up with paranoia such as for example – Invading Armies of Evil Aliens and anti- communist films such as the Manchurian Candidate. The onset of television set in the post war era likewise threatened the cinematic sector as a medium of watching films.

During this time period, Asian Cinema specifically saw a golden get older. Some of the most significant masterpieces of the Asian cinema had been produced during this time period. These include gets results like: Yasujiro Ozu’sTokyo Story(1953),Satyajit Ray’sThe Apu Trilogy(1955-1959) andThe Music Room(1958),Kenji Mizoguchi’sUgetsu(1954) andSansho the Bailiff(1954),Raj Kapoor’sAwaara(1951),Mikio Naruse’sFloating Clouds(1955),Guru Dutt’sPyaasa(1957) andKaagaz Ke Phool(1959), and theAkira Kurosawa films Rashomon (1950), Ikiru(1952),Seven Samurai(1954) andThrone of Blood(1957).

1970s: Post-classical cinema

This term can be used to describe the period following the decline of thestudio systemduring the 1950s and 1960s and the finish of theproduction code. Through the 1970s, filmmakers significantly depicted explicit sexual content and demonstrated gunfight and battle scenes that included graphic pictures of bloody deaths.

The 1980s were filled with films releasing with sequels like Celebrity Wars, Jaws, and Indiana Jones essay introduction example. The audience likewise started to watch movies on the VCR at home during this time period.

1990s to provide: Contemporary Cinema

The 1990s observed the creation of the independent cinema with industrial success. Special effects as well ruled during this time period as it had been heavily used by the successful movies of the period like: Terminator 2: Judgment Day(1991) andTitanic(1997).

During the 2000s, documentary genre of film building also rose as can be seen with the achievement of movies such as March of the Penguins, and Fahrenheit 9/11. Upsurge in the problem of digital distribution because of infringement of copyrights, and piracy also has reached heights during this time period.

Cinema all together during this decade has become considerably more global with foreign-language movies gathering popularity in English-speaking markets. Movies such as Town of Gods (Portugese), Lagaan (Hindi), and the Passion of the Christ (Aramaic).

“Some have described the prevailing style of the period aspostmodernbecause many contemporary movies will be apolitical, ahistorical, intertextual, and less tied to the conventions of an individual genre or tradition. The transnational circulation and genre hybridity of modern films is certainly exemplified by the raising global popularity of non- English speaking cinema.” (Film Studies, 2009)

Major Genres of Films:

Action, Adventure, Comedy, Criminal offense & Gangster films, Drama, Epic/ Historical films, Horror, Musical, Technology fiction, War (anti- battle), Western, and Eastern films.

Theyare broad enough to accommodate practically any film ever made, although film categories can’t ever be specific. By isolating the various components in a film and categorizing them in genres, you’ll be able to easily examine a film within its genre and invite for meaningful comparisons plus some judgments on greatness. Movies werenotreally subjected to genre research by film historians before 1970s. All films possess at least one main genre, although there are a variety of films that are considered crossbreeds or

hybrids with 3 or 4 overlapping genre (orsub-genre) types that discover them. (Dirks)

History of Short Films

‘Short subject matter’ a name initially directed at Short Films came into existence in the 1910s when a lot of the feature films were being converted to loner run-time editions. The name ‘short subject’ is an American film market term, which was assigned to any film within 20 minutes longer or running two reels. Short subject films could be comedy, animated, or live action. One of the better known users of short subject matter was Laurel and Hardy and Charlie Chaplin.

In 1930s arrived the slowdown of the short subjects, basically produced by Warner Bros and Famous studios that owned their own theatres to showcase the films. By 1995s, the rise of television led to the strangulation of the live actions- short and at the same time the fall cartoon brief. Since the 1960s, majority of the directors of brief films have already been special studio projects or independent film makers.

Since the 1980s, brief film term was being used for short subject. Short film as a term describes the non- commercial film that is much shorter with time length than a characteristic film/ an analogy that may be drawn for brief film to a feature film is definitely that of a novella and a novel.

The short filmmakers heavily depend on the brief film festivals and art work exhibitions to showcase their short films. Concurrently, these film makers have more freedom to take up more difficult topics than normal feature films as the risks are lower. Brief film making is now a growing as more and more amateurs, students, common gentleman, and enthusiasts are taking this up due to the affordability of the technology to create such films. At the same time you can showcase his work to the globe by uploading it on internet portals and sharing it with others. It really is an area where persons are embracing as a hobby, as an art, to achieve their kind expressions. (Wiernicki)

Festival de Cannes

“The Festival can be an apolitical no-man’s-property, a microcosm of what the world will be like if persons could contact one another directly and speak the same vocabulary.”

– Jean Cocteau

Being first large international cultural event following the World Battle II, the Event de Cannes opened up on 20th September, 1946. The Palme d’Or was made in 1955. Palme d’Or started to be the enduring symbol of the Cannes Film Event, awarded each and every year since to the director of the greatest Feature Film of the state Competition.

At present, Festival de Cannes invites filmmakers from all over the world to present their work in one place and exchange cultural experience. The options for the awards are done from a nomination of films from around the world, from different socio-economic backgrounds, different cultures, and different historical backgrounds.

Cannes offers an opportunity to determine a particular country’s graphic of its cinema. Event de Cannes is usually a melting pot of global cinema and filmmakers. This is the reason why I’ve undertaken the study of the award earning short films at festival de Cannes.

(Festival History)

KNOWLEDGE GAP

Looking at the current literature review, we see that there surely is a knowledge gap about the study of Short Films in the modern day cinema as a communication medium. This subject matter requires an in-depth evaluation and more research to create some perspectives in this location.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

  1. To take picked works of Short Films of modern day cinema, last ten years winner of Cannes Palme d’Or du court métrage (1999-2009), and analyse the context and type of Short films.
  2. Content of the winners of the Cannes Brief Film awards (1999-2009) in context of political, sociological, economical, and historic backgrounds.
  3. To review the narrative codes in the movies to arrive at a deeper understanding of the short films.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The Qualitative analysis methodology is employed in this study. The method would involve content research (Roland Barthes), text/narrative research and semiotic analysis of the movies.

The Sample:

The Brief Film award winners of Palme d’Or du court métrage (Cannes Short Film Palme d’Or) in Festival de Cannes in the last 10 years (1999-2009). The next Short Films have been selected for the study:

  1. Arena
  2. Megatron
  3. Ver Llover
  4. Sniffer
  5. Podorozhni
  6. Trafic
  7. Cracker Bag
  8. Eso Utan
  9. Bean Cake
  10. Anino

Why the over Sample?

The above pursuing sample has been picked for the reason being that theFestival de Cannes(le Event de Cannes), founded in 1946, is among the world’s oldest, finest and most prestigiousfilm festivals that includes a very great representation of directors from around the world from unique cultural, political, historical, spiritual, inexpensive, and sociological backgrounds. This gives us with a variety of content for our research. The above movies are selected also on the basis of them being truly a part of modern cinema.

How to Study Short Films

Some of the salient items/ questions that will be i did so this study of brief films are the following:

1. Who’s telling the story? Exactly why is it being told? Will it may actually have a purpose?

(media agencies, authorial tone of voice, writers and ‘auteurs’, marketing, economics, ideology)

2. How could it be experienced? Who ‘consumes’ it, where and in what way?

(readers and media viewers- private and public knowledge, narrative structures)

3. How is it made?

(film technology, publishing and episodic publishing-the distinctions they help to make to the development process as well regarding the finished product)

4. How will it construct meaning?

(film words and written language-goals of audiences and readers, codes and conventions, narrative structures)

5. How funny topics to write about will it signify its subject- especially with reference to period?

(representation, make use of stereotypes, representation of the past)

(FILM STUDY Guideline FOR TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD, 2003)

6.

Three Ways of Thinking & DISCUSSING Films(Wilder, 1997)

Literary Aspects

Dramatic Aspects

Cinematic Aspects

Who are the heroes in the film?

Did the actors cause you to forget they were acting? How?

What vivid visual images did you notice? What did they cause you to feel or consider?

What may be the film’s setting?

Were costumes, make-up, and set similarly important to the accomplishment of the film?

What sounds or music do you remember? What performed they cause you to feel or consider?

What are the main plot elements?

In what picture was an actor’s voice (pitch, volume, expression) especially effective?

What scenes can you understand possibly without dialogue? Why?

From whose point of view may be the story told?

Select a scene that must have been difficult to do something. How have the actor make her or his body movements appropriate and convincing?

What scene has extremely effective or unusual editing?

What is the motif of the film?

Describe a scene where facial expression was essential. What feelings were developed? Were thoughts necessary?

If the film uses specialized effects, do they add to or detract from your own fun of the film?

What is the mood of the film?

Did the actors build their characters even more through dialogue or through activity and facial expressions?

What symbols did you notice?

How can be this film like or unlike different films by the director? Does indeed this director contain a recognizable “style”?

Was there anything about the performing, set, or costumes that bothered you or interfered together with your viewing of the film?

EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION

Given that the skill of making Short Movies is usually on the upward pattern it is necessary to analyze the existing styles, narratives, and the context of the Short Movies genre in our contemporary cinema. We have more than enough knowledge on feature length movies but we lack info on the Short Movies of our age. The analysis of this medium is important as Short films are a impressive medium of communication and will gain importance going forward. As more and more people are turning towards Brief Film making due to accessibility to technology, it is one field that needs attention inside our world of cinema. A study of its content will give us a better knowledge of the Short Movies and world around us through their camcorder scope is imperative.